Congenital heart defects are idiopathic in more than 90 percent of cases of congenital heart defects in children, as they are abnormalities in the heart or in the structure of the heart that are discovered during childbirth, and congenital defects are from simple cases that do not need treatment to difficult and complex cases Causing complications that may threaten human life and have different types, most of them cause a problem in pumping blood into the heart and vessels that are close to the heart with disturbances in the work of the heart and congenital defects of many and many types, the most famous of which is the hole in the wall in the middle of the heart or valve, and from birth defects of the heart It may be discovered while the fetus was still in the uterus or at the age of puberty, and with the development of modern medicine, the treatment of congenital defects of the heart has become an investigation according to the patient's condition.
When is a child known to have a congenital heart disease?
With the progress and modern development in medicine and imaging devices, it is possible to discover most of the diseases of congenital defects of the heart during pregnancy and including at birth, and no actual cause has yet been established that leads to congenital malformations of the heart, but there are supporting factors and they are divided into factors related to the mother from:
(Diabetes - exposure of the mother to viral infections such as rubella - exposure to radiation such as stratified images - I take medicines such as neurology and rheumatism drugs - inbreeding - smoking).
And factors related to the fetus from:
(The number of chromosomes or a defect in the genetic chromosome, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome, etc.).
Symptoms of congenital heart defects:
1- The mother notices difficulty breastfeeding (the child stops repeatedly during feeding).
2- Rapid breathing.
3- Recurrent pneumonia and bronchitis.
4- Excessive sweating of the child.
5- Not gaining weight.
6- Blueness in the mouth, tongue and extremities.
And the treatment of congenital heart defects is diagnosed when the doctor who specializes in treating congenital heart defects of the heart hears a heart murmur during a routine examination by means of a stethoscope, and through some tests, including a chest electrocardiogram to see if the fetus has a congenital heart defect before it is born, which allows treatment Better and that is by ultrasound during pregnancy, or by measuring pulse oximetry by testing the amount of oxygen in the child's blood by placing a sensor at the tip of the child's finger, and the tests may also be requested by a doctor who specializes in treating congenital defects of the heart, an x-ray image to see if the heart is enlarged Or the lungs contain excess blood or other fluid in them, and the diagnosis and testing are also made in the treatment of congenital defects of the heart through electrocardiogram and echocardiogram, and in more difficult cases, the doctor who specializes in treating congenital defects of the heart may request resort to cardiac catheterization Where in this test a thin, flexible tube is also inserted into a blood vessel in the child's thigh and is guided through the blood vessel to the heart. Operations can be performed through this test in the treatment of congenital defects of the heart, and it increases when Adults or adolescents with congenital heart defects, with tests, cardiovascular, CT scan, or MRI.
It is estimated that out of every 130 newborns, one has heart problems, and thanks to the development of medicine, the largest number of infants survives if compared in the past, and in the majority of treatments or treatment of congenital heart defects in infants, monitoring is constantly of the importance of the doctor. And the mother until puberty.
Types of congenital heart defects:
1- The hole.
2- Blockage of blood flow or pumping.
3- Abnormal vessels.
4- Heart valve disorders.
5- Lack of heart growth.
6- More than one defect.
What can be done in the mother to prevent congenital heart defects?
1- Avoid smoking, drinking drugs harmful to health, and nerve medications, and not taking any medications without consulting a specialist.
2- Take vitamins that contain folic acid.
3- Take the rubella vaccine.
4- Treating or controlling some chronic medical conditions (such as diabetes).
Treating birth defects of the heart?
The treatment depends on the condition and severity of congenital heart disease, it is possible to correct the defect or deal with the disease and complications, as the treatment includes:
First: periodic follow-up: examinations and tests with a doctor who specializes in treating congenital heart defects to ensure that the condition does not deteriorate.
Second: Through drugs: help the heart work with drugs to prevent blood clots and control tachycardia.
Third: healthy nutrition.
Fourth: Catheterization: Repair by catheter. It reveals the type of disease and in cases it works to solve the defect.
Fifth: Implanted heart devices: From the treatment of congenital heart defects, devices that help control and correct heart rhythms and some complications resulting from congenital heart defects.
Discontinuation of the periodic examinations required by the physician specializing in the treatment of congenital heart defects increases the risk of developing the patient's heart muscle failure and may cause the risk of missing treatment, and the Isabel Medical Center provides all treatment and diseases related to the heart, especially the treatment of congenital heart defects With providing all the important medical advice, and working with a team of specialized and highly skilled doctors, all you have to do is consult us and communicate with us in Istanbul - Turkey - Isabel Medical Center.
Key words: treatment of congenital heart defects.